2018年6月20日星期三

Soil acidification big disaster for crops and soil

 The main reason for soil acidification is the increase of hydrogen ions in the soil 


Bio-solution to control soil acidification,please check http://www.doraagri.com/product/dora-rootguard/

  1. Precipitation is large and concentrated, leaching is strong, calcium, magnesium, potassium and other alkaline salt loss, is one of the reasons that cause soil acidification.
  2. The lack of traditional agricultural measures such as lime application, burning of fire excrement, and application of organic fertilizers has caused imbalance of nutrients in cultivated soil as one of the causes of soil acidification.
  3. Long-term large-scale application of chemical fertilizers, especially physiological acid salt is an important cause of soil acidification.
  4. Chemical fertilizers have been used for many years in succession. The acid radicals remaining after the crops absorbed combine with hydrogen ions in the soil to form acids, which can lead to soil compaction, increased acidity, and cause damage to the soil structure.
  5. Blindly purchase and apply strong acidic fertilizers, such as organic fertilizers produced by MSG’s leftovers.
  6. High multiple cropping index, large amount of fertilizer, and little rain leaching result in a decrease in soil organic matter content, a decrease in buffer capacity, and an increase in soil acidification.

 The Harm of Soil acidification 


Root stop grow

Each crop has its own suitable range of soil pH, and most crops are preferably slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. Extremely acidic soil is the main reason for tree aging. Acidification of the soil affects the growth of the crop and does not grow to a certain extent. The acidification of the soil is also extremely detrimental to the growth of the banana, which causes the leaves of the banana to dry out prematurely and is extremely unfavorable to the protection of the banana.

Leaching of protein isolate in acidic soils is one of the important reasons for the decline of soil fertility

After the acidification of the soil, the effectiveness of the fertilizer is affected, phosphorus is still lacking after the application of phosphorus, and potassium is still lacking after the application of potassium. At pH 6-8, the content of available nitrogen in soil is the highest. When the pH is less than 6.5, the phosphorus in the soil becomes iron phosphate aluminum and solidifies. When the pH value is less than 6.0, the content of available potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the soil is drastically reduced. Soil acidification not only affects the availability of a large number of elements, but also affects the availability of trace elements. Boron is in the pH range of 4.7 to 6.7, and molybdenum is in the pH range of 4 to 8 with a decrease in pH and the effectiveness is reduced.

Soil Response (ph) Discomfort  Soil reactions strongly affect the solubility of nutrient elements, ie, effectiveness. Some elements are easily dissolved under acidic conditions, have high effectiveness, high effectiveness, and the solubility-effectiveness of the reaction tends to be neutral or alkaline. In contrast, some of the other elements are more effective under alkaline conditions and less effective under acidic conditions.
Trace elements are particularly closely related to the reaction. For example, the solubility of iron, boron, zinc, and copper decreases with pH (less than pH 4.5), the effectiveness increases rapidly, and the effectiveness decreases when the pH is close to neutral or alkaline, and molybdenum is the opposite, effect Increase with pH increase.
A large number of elements are generally unresponsive to pH, but phosphorus is the exception. Phosphorus has a suitable pH range that is extremely narrow. Strictly speaking, it is only about pH 6.5. If pH<6.5, and the iron and aluminum in the soil are fixed. The lower pH, the greater the solubility of iron and aluminum, the greater the amount of immobilization. If pH>6.5, phosphorus is combined with the calcium in the soil and the effectiveness is also reduced. However, the solubility of calcium phosphate is larger than that of iron phosphate and aluminum phospate, so the availability of phosphorus in alkaline soils is usually higher than that of acid soils.

Soil acidification will affect the life activities of soil microorganisms

Acidification of soil will reduce the amount of beneficial microorganisms in the soil, inhibit the growth and activity of beneficial microorganisms, and thus affect the decomposition of soil organic matter and the circulation of C, N, P, and S in soil.
For some species of harmful microorganisms that like to work in acidic soils, they are beneficial to survive, resulting in the growth of pathogens, increased rhizospheric diseases, and difficult to control, such as: clubroot disease of cruciferous and bacterial wilt, yellow vegetables, Increased wilt. The ideal living environment for Banana Panama disease is acidic soil.


Soil acidification promotes the release and activation of toxic elements and increases cadmium contamination

After the soil is acidified, aluminum ions and other substances in the soil poison the plant roots and cause death.
Soil acidification aggravates the occurrence of manganese poisoning. When the apple germinates in spring, some of them cannot germinate or sprout after germination. Do not draw new ones, form a small old tree, one branch is fine, the middle is thick, like Kashin-Beck disease, some twigs inexplicably died during the growth period. Some branches of the trunk shed water, some trunks were uneven or tumors, peeling off the epidermis with a kinfe, many small black spots were found, and some fruit farmers treated it as a ringworm disease. It has no effect after years treatment; some fruit trees have a very good root system, which is a small fruit and poor coloring. 
These phenomena are caused by manganese poisoning in the tree. Increase the leaching and dissolution of aluminum ions and toxic metal ions such as manganese, chromium, and cadmium, and contaminate the soil and water environment. More seriously, it may also harm the health of humans and animals through the food chain.

2018年6月19日星期二

Dora Rootguard(trichoderma harzianum) Good effect on root growth



More info of Dora Rootguard,please check:http://www.doraagri.com/product/dora-rootguard/

Why does crop quality decline after continuous cropping?

In some plants,stems and leaves appear scorching and shrinking,and some even die.Some pest structures also change.This is what the performance of continuous cropping obstacle in different crops. 

corn continuous cropping

The reasons are generally the following aspects:

1.Continuous cropping causes symptoms of deficiency in soil

Field crops have a long reproductive cycle.The vegetable has a short growing period and a high multiple cropping index. However,whether the same crop or vegetable is grown on the same land for a long or short period,it will absorb more elements, and the element in the soil will be in short supply.Some will also lead to changes in the pH of the soil,and the availability of certain elements in the soil will also decrease.As a result, some cotton will have potassium deficiency,some cabbage will have calcium deficiency, and some will suffer from Zinc Magnesium deficiency.

2.Serious harm of pests and Pathogens in soil

The common diseases in continuous cropping fields are infectious diseases and viruses;the pests are mainly nematodes.Most of the viruses are overwintering on the weeds in the fields and often become sources of infection.The vegetables that are endangered include cabbage,cucumber,tomato,pepper,and radish.Infectious diseases include blight,bacterial wilt,soft rot,and sclerotia. They can live in the soil for many years and occur when conditions are suitable.Such as cotton is easy to wilt if continuours rain in budding,flowering period,rape is susceptible to sclerotinia.

3.Decrease of organic matter content

In the field of continuous cropping,some microorganisms are relatively active, and the decomposition of soil organic matter is fast and the utilization rate is high.Therefore,soil porosity decreases, soil buffer capacity decreases,nutrient loss increases,and the ratio of nutrients also becomes imbalanced.As a result,soil physicochemical properties and the biological character deteriorated.
In order to mitigate the negative impact of continuous cropping,comprehensive adjustments and governance should be implemented in preventive measures.

 Management solution 



1.Carry out “Crop Rotation”

For field crops or vegetable that have caused serious damage to virus sources and infectious diseases,two to three years of crop rotation should be implemented.It is best to use paddy crop rotations to better prevent diseases.

2.Increase application of organic fertilizer

Each hectare should be applied with 60-75 MT decomposing home-fertilizer,or 37.5-45MT of bio-organic fertilizer, or 1200-2250 kg of bio-organic compound fertilizer,which can improve soil organic matter content and inhibit the activities of some harmful microorganisms.At the same time, according to the needs of different crops,applying a certain amount of potash fertilizer in organic fertilizer can alleviate or reduce the damage to wilt disease.

3.Use microbial technology

Microbial agents(such as Trichoderma harzianum,Bacillus subtilis) can be used to irrigate roots or spray,which can improve soil condition obviously,control soil-borne pathogens,promote the growth of crop roots,increase traditional fertilizer efficiency,enhance crops stress resistance,and better prevent diseases caused by continuous cropping,thus increase yield and improve quality.


2018年6月14日星期四

Leading supplier of biostimulants Dora Agri-Tech

Introduction of Dora Agri-Tech,it's the leading supplier of biostimulants for eco-farming in China.


2018年6月13日星期三

Do you know how to control powdery mildew?

Most of us are familiar with powdery mildew,from field to greenhouse, from vegetable garden to orchard garden,it can be said that it appears in most places with crops.Once the crop is infected with powdery mildew,it is rapidly developed and difficult to control, often causing serious problems.

powdery mildew


















Right now at the time of from spring to summer, the temperature rises rapidly everywhere, the temperature difference between day and night is relatively large, and the dry and wet changes in the cultivation environment are relatively frequent, which is extremely conducive to the occurrence of powdery mildew, so we must pay close attention to prevention work.
In general, the genus of powdery mildew on different plants is different. Most powdery mildew pathogens can infect only one host plant. Only a few powdery mildew species can infect a variety of host plants. However, regardless of the genus, the resulting diseases are similar in their basic symptoms.

Powdery mildew on wheat 

Symptoms of Injury: At the begining onset of disease,white moldy spots appeared on the leaves, and then gradually expanded into white molds of nearly circular to elliptic shape.There was a layer of white powder on the surface of the molds,and they immediately scattered when subjected to external force or vibration.These powders are mycelia and conidia of the bacterium.The mildew layer of the late disease became pale to light brown,and small dark spots of small needles were scattered on the lesions,that is,the closed shell of pathogens.
Onset of disease: from mid-to late March to late April,there are differences in different regions.
Powdery mildew on wheat
powdery mildew on wheat












Powdery Mildew on melons 

Symptoms of injury:Diseases can be affected from the seedling stage to the harvest stage, mainly affecting the leaves, petioles and vines,and generally do not invade melon strips.The infected leaves initially developed white powdery small round spots on the back or front of the leaves,and then gradually expanded into irregular,mildly obtrusive white moldy spots.
With the development of the disease,the lesions were connected into pieces and covered with the entire leaf.The affected part was found to be chlorotic and yellow, and many black-brown dark spots appeared on the lesions at the late stage of the disease.
Finally, the white powdery moldy layer became old and turned grayish.When the onset is severe,the diseased leaf tissue becomes tan and dead.Under high-humidity conditions, pathogens can also infect stems and flower organs and produce white patches of dust. Symptoms are similar to the leaves and lesions are smaller.
Onset of disease: mainly from mid-April to late June; autumn planting cucumbers also occur from late September to mid-November.
Powdery Mildew on melons
Powdery Mildew on melons 













Powdery mildew on strawberry 

Symptoms of injury: It mainly harms leaves, petioles, flowers, pedicels, and fruits. The leaves were infected and a thin layer of white mycelium grew on the back of the leaves at the beginning of the disease. As the disease progressed, the leaves curled upwards and spoon-like, and produced dark stains of different sizes. Afterwards, the lesions gradually expanded and spread on the back of the leaves. Produces a thin layer of creamy white powder that, when severe, connects multiple lesions into patches that can cover the entire leaf. In the later period, it was reddish-brown lesions. The leaf margins were atrophic and scorching. Flower buds and flowers were infected. The petals were pink and the buds could not be opened.
If the fruit is infected, the young fruit cannot expand normally and is dry. If the disease is later damaged, the fruit surface is covered with a layer of white powder. As the disease progresses, the fruit loses its luster and hardens, and the coloration deteriorates, which seriously affects the quality of the berry and loses its commercial value.
Onset of disease: late February to early May; late October to December
Powdery mildew on strawberry
Powdery mildew on strawberry















Powdery Mildew on grape 

Symptoms of injury: It can infest all the green tissues of the grapes.
When the leaves were damaged, they showed chlorotic plaques of unequal size, and then a white powder covered the lesions. In the late stage, the surface of the leaves underwent a brown pattern. Sometimes there are black spots on the disease. Young leaves often shrink, twist, and develop slowly after they become sick. After the rachis infected, the tissue became brittle and easily broken.
Sensitive young fruit, fruit surface covered with white powder, the fruit is easy to wither off, some fruit surface appears dark brown reticular pattern. The diseased fruit stops growing, the deformity, the hard texture of the flesh hardens, the taste is sour, and the fruit is easy to crack and cause decay.
Onset of disease: After Flowering to Young Fruit
Powdery Mildew on grape
Powdery Mildew on grape 














Powdery mildew on apple 

Symptoms of injury: The main damage if for the apple tree twigs, leaves, but also harm the buds, flowers and young fruit.
After infection, the apical leaves and tender stems of the seedlings produced pale patches, such as white powder. When the onset is severe, the lesions spread to the entire leaf, the diseased leaves shrink, and the gradient brownish and dead.
After the tip of the new shoot was damaged, the leaves were sluggish, the leaves drawn out were slender, purple-red, and the top tip was twisted and the development stopped lagging. On the lesions, especially between the tender stems and the sinus, many dense black spots were produced.
Onset of disease: mainly from April to June, stagnating in the high-temperature season from July to August, and spreading once again at the end of August in the autumn shoots.
Powdery mildew on apple
Powdery mildew on apple













The characteristics of powdery mildew 

Strong parasitic ability

Powdery mildew belongs to a parasite and has strong parasitic ability. After the germination of mycelia or conidia, it is not necessary to pass through the wound. It can invade into the epidermis of the host organ through stomata or directly. The thinner the organ epidermis of the host plant is, the higher the occurrence and severity of powdery mildew is.
Conidiation
The conidia of powdery mildew are particularly developed and most of them are distributed outside the epidermis of infected sites. When temperature, humidity and nutrient conditions are appropriate, conidia and mycelium germinate to form germ tubes and invade into host epidermal cells,absorbs the host cell’s nutrients. Therefore, the powdery mildew is most abundantly distributed near the epidermis of the host plant, but the number of deep pathogenic bacteria in the affected part is very small.

Different conidia formation and germination have different environmental requirements

Powdery mildew requires higher temperatures and relative humidity when forming conidia. At the time of germination, relative lower humidity is needed.In addition, when cultivated in protected areas, the light is weak, ventilation is poor, and the humidity of the air is relatively large. In particular, if pruning is unreasonable, powdery mildew may occur more often.

 Powdery mildew prevention and control methods 


 Agricultural control 

1 Select resistant varieties

There is a difference in resistant ability between the varieties of powdery mildew, so first we must select disease-resistant varieties.

2 Improve conditions of Ventilation and transmittance

The planting density is appropriate, and the old leaves at the bottom are destroyed in time, which is conducive to the light penetration of the fields. Clean the pastoral areas, remove diseased leaves, diseased locusts, and broken twigs, and remove it from the field and concentrate or burn it. It should strengthen ventilation, reduce humidity, and scientifically water, creating an environment that is not conducive to the development of powdery mildew.

3 Balanced fertilization

Give full use of organic fertilizers that have been thoroughly decomposed, increase phosphorus and potash fertilizers, and avoid greediness due to excessive nitrogen fertilizers. The thin and delicate epidermis is more susceptible to powdery mildew. In the early and rapid growth stage of the crop, paying attention to the balanced fertilization of the soil.

 Biological control 

1 Early prevention and treatment

The powdery mildew colonies can germinate and invade on the leaves. On the 1st day, the mycelia can grow on the surface of the leaves, and the lesions of the white mycelium clusters can be formed on the 5th day of infestation. The 7-day-old lesions are mature and produce scattered spores and spread. At this time, pathogenic bacteria reproduce fast, and the disease epidemic is also fast. Therefore, it is very important to control the disease early in the disease.
The occurrence of diseases is also a process of accumulating the amount of bacterium that accompanies crop growth. Therefore, measures are taken at the beginning of each growing season to keep the number of bacteria at the lowest level. Even in the era of powdery mildew, prevention and control will not be too difficult. Waiting until the outbreak of powdery mildew and finding the so-called special effects medicine is the most stupid strategy.

2 Select the right medicine

According to the characteristics of plant growth characteristics and disease occurrence stage, choose the appropriate biological pesticides.
The Trichoderma harzianum has good prevention and treatment effects against powdery mildew,and they have high safety and no pollution. The unique mechanism of action, the role of more sites, the more specific treatment of powdery mildew.

3 Increase the amount of water spray

The conidiospores of powdery mildew have high water content, and when the humidity is high, they can easily break up and die. Therefore, low-concentration, high-volume spraying, spraying all the wet surfaces will have better control effect. However, it should be noted that if the relative humidity in the greenhouse is high, increasing the amount of water spray may cause other diseases.

Read More (Application info of Trichoderma harzianum)

2018年6月12日星期二

What's key problem about soil,Soil hardening/acidification?

In this article,We will know the essential problems in soil,all of them can not be neglected.Now let's go into these problems.

More info of Soil problems Read more
How to solve the these problems Read more 

Soil hardening  

Soil hardening means that soil structure is destroyed,the tillage layer is hardened,and the air permeability is poor.It seriously affect the normal growth of crop roots.






















Main reason

The input of organic fertilizer is seriously insufficient: the content of organic matter in the soil is low and the structure is deteriorated, which affects the activity of microorganisms, thereby affecting the formation of soil aggregate structure and leading to soil hardening.Long-term excessive application of chemical fertilizers: It destroyed the soil structure, and soil organic matter could not be replenished in time,causing soil hardeningand cracking.Agricultural measures such as repression, plowing, and watering have resulted in damage to the upper soil aggregate structure.

Major harm

Root absorbing ability declines. In the case of soil hardening, lack of oxygen causes a decrease in root vigor, does not develop normally, and weakens the respiration, affecting the absorption of nutrients.Lead to nutrients deficiency symptoms. As root capacity declines, the ability to absorb water and fertilizers weakens,together with poor soil nutrient availability,lead to nutrients deficiency symptoms.

The imbalance of mineral nutrition ratio

Crop growth requires 17 kinds of essential nutrients.In daily management,only nitrogen,phosphorus,and potassium fertilizers are emphasized,and trace elements are neglected.As a result, trace elements in the soil are depleted, and NPK are enriched. 









Main performance

With more and more fertilizer inputs, the yield and quality of fruits and vegetables have not been improved, but have shown a downward trend.

Major harm

Physiological nutrients deficiency symptoms. Such as calcium, magnesium, iron and so on.Poor growth of crops and reduction of quality of agricultural products.

Low organic matter content

Soil organic matter is an important part of the soil structure and an important indicator of soil fertility.

Main reason

At present, the number of crop replanting increases, excessive application of chemical fertilizers, and organic fertilizer application is seriously inadequate or the use of methods is unreasonable.

Major harm

The loss of soil orgarmnic matter is serious, the structure of the soil pellets is destroyed, the soil water conservation, fertilizer retention capacity, permeability and buffering performance are reduced, and the crop yield and economic benefits are seriously affected.

Thinner plough layer

Soil hardening means that the soil structure is destroyed,the tillage layer is hardened,and the air permeability is poor.Seriously affect the normal growth of crop roots.









Main performance

Due to the long-term use of rotary cultivators, most of the soil cultivating layer becomes shallow, and the effective living soil layer is only 15 to 20 cm.

Major harm

The formation of the “plough bottom” has hindered the circulation of soil moisture, nutrients, and air, hindered the extension of the roots of the crop, reduced the ability of the soil to store water, and drought resistance ability.